What does referencing include?
A. In-text citations, that may take three forms:
- Paraphrasing, in which you keep carefully the original author’s >B. A reference list during the final end of the essay, which include details such as for instance:
- Date of publication
- Publisher and place of publication (for books)
- Journal name, issue and volume(for journals)
- Internet address or doi (digital object >
Referencing is integral to academic essay writing and shouldn’t be looked at as an ‘add-on’. When you are referencing, always use a referencing guide that will help you ensure 100% accuracy.
Normally, when writing an essay at paper writer university you’re going to be anticipated to use only academic sources. The following learning guide on source credibility will help you determine whether an external source is academic or otherwise not.
The chocolate essay uses the APA design of referencing, which is simple to distinguish from the Harvard Author-Date System, while the format is significantly diffent:
|Try and achieve a balance between both types of in text-references in your essay writing.|
In the APA style of referencing, the reference list has conventions that are certain you must also follow. Check out examples through the essay that is chocolate
|Don’t make referencing something you will do just as an editing or proofreading activity. Include your citations that are in-text reference list as part of your first draft.|
An excellent web site to help with your APA referencing may be the APA Interactive tool at Massey University.
Leave yourself time that is enough have a look at your essay more than once. For a 1000 word essay you’ll need at the least 3 days to redraft your essay.
|Always save each draft as a file that is separate you’ll be able to see how your essay develops and improves.|
Here you will find the types of questions you ought to ask yourself:
You may have a look at other checklists such as this one on editing your very own work.
Let’s see how the author of the chocolate essay redrafted their original introduction:
Now compare the aforementioned utilizing the final draft:
Since Spanish explorers cut back chocolate from the “” new world “”, chocolate consumption has become a worldwide phenomenon. At first, chocolate, a derivative of this cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form. However, chocolate’s inherent popularity does not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested because of the title. The realities of chocolate tend to be more right down to earth; a true number of these realities will soon be addressed in this article. Chocolate has chemical properties that may influence mood and there is evidence that is possible some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health. Yet, such positive attributes are counterbalanced somewhat by the argument that, in certain instances, chocolate may very well be a drug rather than a food. Moreover, you have the likelihood of some correlation between over-consumption of chocolate and obesity. Thus, it is argued that despite chocolate’s positive effect in some cases on mood and also the cardiovascular system it has in addition been associated with addiction and obesity.
Invest some time and become careful when redrafting—it shall be worth it!
How can you write in an way that is academic?
Your lecturers may wish to hear your ‘voice’ because they read your essay.
Imagine your essay as a kind of story. You are the storyteller that is principal the internal voice of this writer, leading your reader right through to your conclusion.
Through the story, you will find different voices that appear every so often. They are the external voices (citations) that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for what you might be saying and on occasion even giving an alternative perspective. The external voices can be divided in to two categories in your essay: the direct external voice of an author (through a direct quote) and the indirect external voice of an author (through a paraphrase).
The reader needs to know after all times whose voice they truly are hearing. Is it your voice that is internal or external voice of other authors?
You could wonder how you can include your own voice whilst still being sound academic while you are currently talking about a area that is subject which you have little (or no) knowledge. As well as your voice doesn’t mean that you ought to say ‘I think’ or ‘in my opinion’.
Here are a few samples of the critical/analytical language that you can use as the own internal voice once you present other people’s ideas:
|Whenever you are drafting your paragraphs, use a system that is colour-coding the only used here. It helps you make sure your academic voice is that is clear|
Once you have more confident in making use of external sources, you certainly will gradually expand the language of the critical internal voice. The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides samples of even more expressions to utilize when assessing sources that are external.
Editing focuses on the big picture elements such as overall structure, appropriate paragraphing and perhaps the question happens to be answered.
Proofreading has a micro-focus on the details of the essay, such as for instance formatting, grammar and punctuation.
Everybody has their own personal model of editing and proofreading. You’ll want to focus on the types of errors you commonly make by looking in the marker’s comments on the previous work.
Some individuals proofread alone; some get other individuals involved. Having others involved is a really good clear idea.